Microbiota

Acciones vinculadas a la microbiota intestinal

Resistencia y regulación de la colonización de gérmenes patógenos de origen externo o de génesis endógena.

Resistencia y regulación de la colonización de gérmenes patógenos de origen externo o de génesis endógena.

Colaboración en la digestión de los alimentos para favorecer o modular la biodisponibilidad de sus componentes.

Colaboración en la digestión de los alimentos para favorecer o modular la biodisponibilidad de sus componentes.

Síntesis de algunas vitaminas (K, grupo B…) y absorción de oligoelementos.

Síntesis de algunas vitaminas (K, grupo B…) y absorción de oligoelementos.

Estabilización de la barrera intestinal y de la funcionalidad de la capa mucosa protectora.

Estabilización de la barrera intestinal y de la funcionalidad de la capa mucosa protectora.

Estimulación del peristaltismo y de la destrucción de xenobióticos con la ayuda de la síntesis de ácidos grasos de cadena corta a partir de sustratos de la dieta.

Estimulación del peristaltismo y de la destrucción de xenobióticos con la ayuda de la síntesis de ácidos grasos de cadena corta a partir de sustratos de la dieta.

Puesta a punto de la funcionalidad de los linfocitos y otras estructuras inmunitarias a nivel local y general.

Puesta a punto de la funcionalidad de los linfocitos y otras estructuras inmunitarias a nivel local y general.

Síntesis de componentes psicoactivos que favorecen la funcionalidad bidireccional del eje intestino-cerebro, tan importante para el equilibrio emocional y la salud mental.

Síntesis de componentes psicoactivos que favorecen la funcionalidad bidireccional del eje intestino-cerebro, tan importante para el equilibrio emocional y la salud mental.

porque

Adquisición de la microbiota

El intestino del feto es básicamente aséptico aunque en determinados casos se han detectado algunos componentes de la microbiota materna en el cordón umbilical.

La colonización bacteriana comienza en el tránsito por el canal del parto, incluida la zona perianal, y se completa en buena medida a partir de la lactancia materna (predominio de lactobacilos y bifidobacterias, como Streptococcussalivarius, Staphilococcusepidermidisy Bifidobacteriumlongum) y componentes del hábitat.

La introducción de la alimentación complementaria modifica progresivamente el perfil bacteriano hasta alcanzar una composición similar a la del adulto a los 4-6 años de edad.

La microbiota intestinal está fuertemente influenciada por el genotipo, la vía de nacimiento, el patrón alimentario, la incorporación de probióticos, la edad, el hábitat, el consumo de fármacos, los aspectos emocionales y otros estilos de vida.

Evolución de la microbiota con la edad

En la figura relacionada con el estudio de Morinaga Milk de 2017, se muestran los cambios secuenciales de la microbiota intestinal de lactantes a centenarios. Hay investigaciones que intentan relacionar la evolución de la microbiota con la edad y su posible relación con el declinar inmunológico y con una mayor susceptibilidad a determinadas patologías.

grafico grafico
disbiosis

Microbiota y disbiosis

Se denomina disbiosis al desequilibrio de la estructura y la función normal de la microbiota. Tradicionalmente se ha asociado la disbiosis a trastornos del aparato digestivo, tales como diarreas, estreñimiento, intolerancias alimentarias, etc.

En la actualidad se van describiendo muchas enfermedades asociadas a cambios en la composición de la microbiota: Trastornos relacionados con la nutrición, enfermedades inflamatorias intestinales, enfermedad celiaca, diarrea, cuadros alérgicos y asociados (rinitis, asma, alergias alimentarias, dermatitis atópica), trastornos funcionales del intestino, alteraciones del equilibrio emocional.

Aplicaciones de algunas cepas de Bifidobacterias y lactobacillus

Procesos infecciosos agudos o recidivantes.

Intolerancia a la lactosa.

Tratamiento y prevención de diarreas.

Dermatitis atópica.

Diarrea asociada a antibióticos.

Alergias.

Infección por Helicobacter pylori.

Infecciones urogenitales.

Enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal.

Obesidad, síndrome metabólico.

Enfermedad celíaca en todas sus manifestaciones.

Refuerzo del sistema inmunológico.

Los efectos sobre el organismo son “cepa-dependientes”, cada cepa actúa a un nivel concreto y distinto a las demás.

Estudios

The relationship between the gut microbiome and skin disorders: in search of new probiotics for dermatology. Nutrafoods. 189-91. 10.17470/NF-018-1006-4.
Ramón, Daniel & Navarro Lopez, Vicente & Ramírez-Bosca, Ana & Chenoll, Empar & Genovés Martínez, Salvador. (2018)
Gut microbiome variations have been described in several skin disorders, including atopic dermatitis in children and psoriasis in adults. In both pathologies, an increase in blood markers for oxidative stress and inflammation has also been detected. Taking these results into account, we have developed specific blends of probiotics for each of these skin conditions which have also been studied in clinical trials. The results have shown t […]
Effect of oral administration of a mixture of probiotic strains on SCORAD index and use of topical steroids in young patients with moderate atopic dermatitis: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA dermatology, 154(1), 37-43.
Navarro-López, V., Ramírez-Boscá, A., Ramón-Vidal, D., Ruzafa-Costas, B., Genovés-Martínez, S., Chenoll-Cuadros, E., ... & Codoñer-Cortés, F. M. (2018)
Importance Oral intake of new probiotic formulations may improve the course of atopic dermatitis (AD) in a young population. Objective To determine whether a mixture of oral probiotics is safe and effective in the treatment of AD symptoms and to evaluate its influence on the use of topical steroids in a young population. Design, Setting, and Participants A 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention trial, from Mar […]
Draft genome sequence of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strain CECT 8145, able to improve metabolic syndrome in vivo. Genome Announc., 2(2), e00183-14.
Chenoll, E., Codoñer, F. M., Silva, A., Martinez-Blanch, J. F., Martorell, P., Ramón, D., & Genovés, S. (2014)
Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strain CECT 8145 is able to reduce body fat content and improve metabolic syndrome biomarkers. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which may provide insights into its safety status and functional role. […]
Probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CECT 8145 reduces fat content and modulates lipid metabolism and antioxidant response in Caenorhabditis elegans. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 64(17), 3462-3472.
Martorell, P., Llopis, S., Gonzalez, N., Chenoll, E., Lopez-Carreras, N., Aleixandre, A., ... & Genovés, S. (2016)
Recently, microbial changes in the human gut have been proposed as a possible cause of obesity. Therefore, modulation of microbiota through probiotic supplements is of great interest to support obesity therapeutics. The present study examines the functional effect and metabolic targets of a bacterial strain, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CECT 8145, selected from a screening in Caenorhabditis elegans. This strain significantly r […]
Heat-killed Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. Lactis CECT 8145 increases lean mass and ameliorates metabolic syndrome in cafeteria-fed obese rats. Journal of Functional Foods, 38, 251-263
Caimari, A., del Bas, J. M., Boqué, N., Crescenti, A., Puiggròs, F., Chenoll, E., ... & Arola, L. (2017)
To evaluate the ability of the heat-killed probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CECT 8145 (Ba8145) to ameliorate Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), four groups of male Wistar rats were fed either standard chow (ST) or the obesogenic cafeteria diet (CAF) and were orally supplemented with either heat-killed Ba8145 (1010 CFU/day) (ST-Ba8145 and CAF-Ba8145 groups) or vehicle (ST-veh and CAF-veh groups) for 84days. Both ST-Ba8145 and CAF […]
Anti-obesity properties of the strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CECT 8145 in Zücker fatty rats. Beneficial microbes, 9(4), 629-641.
Carreras, N. L., Martorell, P., Chenoll, E., Genovés, S., Ramón, D., & Aleixandre, A. (2018)
We evaluated the effect of oral administration of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CECT 8145 strain in Zücker fatty rats. The Zücker fatty rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=10 each) and administered either B. animalis subsp. lactis CECT 8145 (1010 cfu/day) suspended in skim milk, or skim milk alone (control group). Each treatment was administered in drinking bottles from week 5 until week 17 of age. A lean Zücker ra […]
Effects of daily consumption of the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CECT 8145 on anthropometric adiposity biomarkers in abdominally obese subjects: a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Obesity, 43(9), 1863-1868.
Pedret, A., Valls, R. M., Calderón-Pérez, L., Llauradó, E., Companys, J., Pla-Pagà, L., ... & Caimari, A. (2019)
BACKGROUND:
The effects of probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CECT 8145 (Ba8145) and those of its heat-killed form (h-k Ba8145) on human anthropometric adiposity biomarkers are unknown.

OBJECTIVE:
To assess the effect of Ba8145 and h-k Ba8145 ingestion on anthropometric adiposity biomarkers.

DESIGN:
Randomized, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with abdomina […]
Bifidobacterium CECT 7765 modulates early stress-induced immune, neuroendocrine and behavioral alterations in mice. Brain, behavior, and immunity, 65, 43-56.
Moya-Perez, A., Perez-Villalba, A., Benitez-Paez, A., Campillo, I., & Sanz, Y. (2017)
Emerging evidence suggests that there is a window of opportunity within the early developmental period, when microbiota-based interventions could play a major role in modulating the gut-brain axis and, thereby, in preventing mood disorders. This study aims at evaluating the effects and mode of action of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 in a murine model of chronic stress induced by maternal separation (MS). C57Bl/6J male brea […]
Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 ameliorates neuroendocrine alterations associated with an exaggerated stress response and anhedonia in obese mice. Molecular neurobiology, 55(6), 5337-5352.
Agusti, A., Moya-Perez, A., Campillo, I., Montserrat-De La Paz, S., Cerrudo, V., Perez-Villalba, A., & Sanz, Y. (2018)
Obesity, besides being a problem of metabolic dysfunction, constitutes a risk factor for psychological disorders. Experimental models of diet-induced obesity have revealed that obese animals are prone to anxious and depressive-like behaviors. The present study aimed to evaluate whether Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 could reverse the neurobehavioral consequences of obesity in a high-fat diet (HFD) fed mouse model via regula […]
Cell-free culture supernatant of Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines in human dendritic cells challenged with Salmonella typhi through TLR activation. PLoS One, 8(3).
Bermudez-Brito, M., Muñoz-Quezada, S., Gomez-Llorente, C., Matencio, E., Bernal, M. J., Romero, F., & Gil, A. (2013)
Probiotic bacteria have been shown to modulate immune responses and could have therapeutic effects in allergic and inflammatory disorders. However, little is known about the signalling pathways that are engaged by probiotics. Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells that are involved in immunity and tolerance. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) and murine DCs are different from human gut DCs; therefore, in this study, we […]
Human intestinal dendritic cells decrease cytokine release against Salmonella infection in the presence of Lactobacillus paracasei upon TLR activation. PLoS One, 7(8).
Bermudez-Brito, M., Muñoz-Quezada, S., Gomez-Llorente, C., Matencio, E., Bernal, M. J., Romero, F., & Gil, A. (2012)
Dendritic cells (DCs) constitute the first point of contact between gut commensals and our immune system. Despite growing evidence of the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics, the interactions between the cells of the intestinal immune system and bacteria remain largely unknown. Indeed,, the aim of this work was to determine whether the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and its cell-free culture supernatant (CFS) have immuno […]
Lactobacillus rhamnosus and its cell-free culture supernatant differentially modulate inflammatory biomarkers in Escherichia coli-challenged human dendritic cells. British Journal of Nutrition, 111(10), 1727-1737.
Bermudez-Brito, M., Munoz-Quezada, S., Gomez-Llorente, C., Romero, F., & Gil, A. (2014)
The intestinal immune system maintains a delicate balance between immunogenicity against invading pathogens and tolerance to the commensal microbiota and food antigens. Different strains of probiotics possess the ability to finely regulate the activation of dendritic cells (DC), polarising the subsequent activity of T-cells. Nevertheless, information about their underlying mechanisms of action is scarce. In the present study, we investi […]
Safety and immunomodulatory effects of three probiotic strains isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants in healthy adults: SETOPROB study. PLoS One, 8(10).
Plaza-Diaz, J., Gomez-Llorente, C., Campaña-Martin, L., Matencio, E., Ortuño, I., Martínez-Silla, R., ... & Genovés, S. (2013)
We previously described the isolation and characterization of three probiotic strains from the feces of exclusively breast-fed newborn infants: Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. These strains were shown to adhere to intestinal mucus in vitro, to be sensitive to antibiotics and to resist biliary salts and low pH. In the present study, a multicenter, randomized, […]
Competitive inhibition of three novel bacteria isolated from faeces of breast milk-fed infants against selected enteropathogens. British journal of nutrition, 109(S2), S63-S69.
Munoz-Quezada, S., Bermudez-Brito, M., Chenoll, E., Genovés, S., Gomez-Llorente, C., Plaza-Diaz, J., ... & Gil, A. (2013)
Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies conducted using different probiotic micro-organisms have demonstrated their ability to interfere with the growth and virulence of a variety of enteropathogens. The reported beneficial effects of the use of probiotics to complement antibiotic therapy or prevent diarrhoea or gastrointestinal infection in infants have increased in recent years. In the present study, we demonstrated the capacity of supe […]
Isolation, identification and characterisation of three novel probiotic strains (Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036) from the faeces of exclusively breast-fed infants. British journal of nutrition, 109(S2), S51-S62.
Munoz-Quezada, S., Chenoll, E., Vieites, J. M., Genovés, S., Maldonado, J., Bermúdez-Brito, M., ... & Suárez, A. (2013)
The aim of the present study was to isolate, identify and characterise novel strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria with probiotic properties from the faeces of exclusively breast-fed infants. Of the 4680 isolated colonies, 758 exhibited resistance to low pH and tolerance to high concentrations of bile salts; of these, only forty-two exhibited a strong ability to adhere to enterocytes in vitro. The identities of the isolates […]
Modulation of phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cells by intestinal bacteria and gliadin: relevance for celiac disease. Journal of leukocyte biology, 92(5), 1043-1054.
De Palma, G., Kamanova, J., Cinova, J., Olivares, M., Drasarova, H., Tuckova, L., & Sanz, Y. (2012)
DC maturation and functions are influenced by microbial and environmental stimuli, which could contribute to immune dysfunction. Here, we have investigated the role of enterobacteria (Escherichia coli CBL2 and Shigella CBD8) isolated from CD patients, bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium longum CECT 7347 and Bifidobacterium bifidum CECT 7365), and gliadins on phenotypic and functional features of MDDCs and in coculture with Caco-2 cells. The […]
Bifidobacterium strains suppress in vitro the pro-inflammatory milieu triggered by the large intestinal microbiota of coeliac patients. Journal of Inflammation, 5(1), 19.
Medina, M., De Palma, G., Ribes-Koninckx, C., Calabuig, M., & Sanz, Y. (2008)
Background Coeliac disease (CD) is an enteropathy characterized by an aberrant immune response to cereal-gluten proteins. Although gluten peptides and microorganisms activate similar pro-inflammatory pathways, the role the intestinal microbiota may play in this… […]
Lactobacillus rhamnosus and its cell-free culture supernatant differentially modulate inflammatory biomarkers in Escherichia coli-challenged human dendritic cells. British Journal of Nutrition, 111(10), 1727-1737
Bermudez-Brito, M., Munoz-Quezada, S., Gomez-Llorente, C., Romero, F., & Gil, A. (2014)
The intestinal immune system maintains a delicate balance between immunogenicity against invading pathogens and tolerance to the commensal microbiota and food antigens. Different strains of probiotics possess the ability to finely regulate the activation of dendritic cells (DC), polarising the subsequent activity of T-cells. […]
Genomic sequence and pre-clinical safety assessment of Bifidobacterium longum CECT 7347, a probiotic able to reduce the toxicity and inflammatory potential of Gliadin-derived peptides. J. Probiotics Health, 1(2), 106.
Chenoll, E., Codoñer, F. M., Silva, A., Ibáñez, A., Martinez-Blanch, J. F., Bollati-Fogolín, M., ... & Genovés, S. (2013)
Bifidobacteria are common inhabitants of human gut and play a significant role in establishing a well-balanced intestinal microbiota. The strain Bifidobacterium longum CECT 7347 (ES1) has been demonstrated to ameliorate damage caused by gluten in celiac ... […]
Bifidobacterium longum CECT 7347 modulates immune responses in a gliadin-induced enteropathy animal model. PLoS One, 7(2).
Laparra, J. M., Olivares, M., Gallina, O., & Sanz, Y. (2012)
Coeliac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder triggered by gluten proteins (gliadin) that involves innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, we hypothesise that the administration of Bifidobacterium longum CECT 7347, previously selected for reducing ... […]
Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled intervention trial to evaluate the effects of Bifidobacterium longum CECT 7347 in children with newly diagnosed coeliac disease. British journal of nutrition, 112(1), 30-40.
Olivares, M., Castillejo, G., Varea, V., & Sanz, Y. (2014)
Interactions between the immune system and the intestinal microbiota may play a role in coeliac disease (CD). In the present study, the potential effects of Bifidobacterium longum CECT 7347 in children with newly diagnosed CD were evaluated. A double-blind, ... […]

Infografías Microbiota